CONTRIBUTORS
PREFACE

Part 1: The Profession of Medicine
1 The Practice of Medicine
The Editors

2 Promoting Good Health
Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Kathleen M. McKibbin

3 Decision-Making in Clinical Medicine
Daniel B. Mark, John B. Wong

4 Screening and Prevention of Disease
Katrina A. Armstrong, Gary J. Martin

5 Health Care Systems in Developed Countries
Richard B. Saltman

6 The Safety and Quality of Health Care
David W. Bates

7 Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care
Joseph R. Betancourt, Alexander R. Green

8 Ethical Issues in Clinical Medicine
Bernard Lo, Christine Grady

9 Palliative and End-of-Life Care
Ezekiel J. Emanuel
Part 2: Cardinal Manifestations and Presentation of Diseases

Section 1: Pain

10 Pain: Pathophysiology and Management
James P. Rathmell, Howard L. Fields

11 Chest Discomfort
David A. Morrow

12 Abdominal Pain
Danny O. Jacobs

13 Headache
Peter J. Goadsby

14 Back and Neck Pain
John W. Engstrom

Section 2: Alterations in Body Temperature

15 Fever
Charles A. Dinarello, Reuven Porat

16 Fever and Rash
Elaine T. Kaye, Kenneth M. Kaye

17 Fever of Unknown Origin
Chantal P. Bleeker-Rovers, Jos W. M. van der Meer

Section 3: Nervous System Dysfunction

18 Syncope
Roy Freeman

19 Dizziness and Vertigo
Mark F. Walker, Robert B. Daroff

20 Fatigue
Jeffrey M. Gelfand, Vanja C. Douglas

21 Neurologic Causes of "Weakness and Paralysis
Michael J. Aminoff

22 Numbness, Tingling, and Sensory Loss
Michael J. Aminoff

23 Gait Disorders, Imbalance and Falls
Jessica M. Baker, Lewis R. Sudarsky

24 Confusion and Delirium
S. Andrew Josephson, Bruce L. Miller

25 Dementia
William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller

26 Aphasia, Memory Loss, Hemispatial Neglect, Frontal Syndromes and Other Cerebral Disorders
M.-Marsel Mesulam

27 Sleep Disorders
Thomas E. Scammell, Clifford B. Saper, Charles A. Czeisler

Section 4: Disorders of Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat

28 Disorders of the Eye
Jonathan C. Horton

29 Disorders of Smell and Taste
Richard L. Doty, Steven M. Bromley

30 Disorders of Hearing
Anil K. Lalwani

31 Sore Throat, Earache, and Upper Respiratory Symptoms
Michael A. Rubin, Larry C. Ford, Ralph Gonzales

32 Oral Manifestations of Disease
Samuel C. Durso

Section 5: Alterations in Circulatory and Respiratory Functions

33 Dyspnea
Rebecca M. Baron

34 Cough
Christopher H. Fanta

35 Hemoptysis
Anna K. Brady, Patricia A. Kritek

36 Hypoxia and Cyanosis
Joseph Loscalzo

37 Edema
Eugene Braunwald, Joseph Loscalzo

38 Approach to the Patient with a Heart Murmur
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

39 Palpitations
Joseph Loscalzo

Section 6: Alterations in Gastrointestinal Function

40 Dysphagia
Ikuo Hirano, Peter J. Kahrilas

41 Nausea, Vomiting, and Indigestion
William L. Hasler

42 Diarrhea and Constipation
Michael Camilleri, Joseph A. Murray

43 Unintentional Weight Loss
J. Larry Jameson

44 Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Loren Laine

45 Jaundice
Savio John, Daniel S. Pratt

46 Abdominal Swelling and Ascites
Kathleen E. Corey, Lawrence S. Friedman

Section 7: Alterations in Renal and Urinary Tract Function

47 Dysuria, Bladder Pain, and the Interstitial Cystitis/ Bladder Pain Syndrome
John W. Warren

48 Azotemia and Urinary Abnormalities
David B. Mount

49 Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances
David B. Mount

50 Hypercalcemia and Hypocalcemia
Sundeep Khosla

51 Acidosis and Alkalosis
Thomas D. DuBose, Jr.

Section 8: Alterations in the Skin

52 Approach to the Patient with a Skin Disorder
Kim B. Yancey, Thomas J. Lawley

53 Eczema, Psoriasis, Cutaneous Infections, Acne, and Other Common Skin Disorders
Leslie P. Lawley, Calvin O. McCall, Thomas J. Lawley

54 Skin Manifestations of Internal Disease
Jean L. Bolognia, Irwin M. Braverman

55 Immunologically Mediated Skin Diseases
Kim B. Yancey, Thomas J. Lawley

56 Cutaneous Drug Reactions
Robert G. Micheletti, Misha Rosenbach, Bruce U. Wintroub, Kanade Shinkai

57 Photosensitivity and Other Reactions to Light
Alexander G. Marneros, David R. Bickers

Section 9: Hematologic Alterations

58 Interpreting Peripheral Blood Smears
Dan L. Longo

59 Anemia and Polycythemia
John W. Adamson, Dan L. Longo

60 Disorders of Granulocytes and Monocytes
Steven M. Holland, John I. Gallin

61 Bleeding and Thrombosis
Barbara A. Konkle

62 Enlargement of Lymph Nodes and Spleen
Dan L. Longo
Part 3: Pharmacology

63 Principles of Clinical Pharmacology
Dan M. Roden

64 Pharmacogenomics
Dan M. Roden
Part 4: Oncology and Hematology

Section 1: Neoplastic Disorders

65 Approach to the Patient with Cancer
Dan L. Longo

66 Prevention and Early Detection of "Cancer
Jennifer M. Croswell, Otis W. Brawley, Barnett S. Kramer

67 Cancer Genetics
Fred Bunz, Bert Vogelstein

68 Cancer Cell Biology
Jeffrey W. Clark, Dan L. Longo

69 Principles of Cancer Treatment
Edward A. Sausville, Dan L. Longo

70 Infections in Patients with Cancer
Robert W. Finberg

71 Oncologic Emergencies
Rasim Gucalp, Janice P. Dutcher

72 Cancer of the Skin
Brendan D. Curti, Sancy Leachman, Walter J. Urba

73 Head and Neck Cancer
Everett E. Vokes

74 Neoplasms of the Lung
Leora Horn, Christine M. Lovly

75 Breast Cancer
Daniel F. Hayes, Marc E. Lippman

76 Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers
Robert J. Mayer

77 Lower Gastrointestinal Cancers
Robert J. Mayer

78 Tumors of the Liver and Biliary Tree
Josep M. Llovet

79 Pancreatic Cancer
Daniel D. Von Hoff

80 Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Pancreas
Robert T. Jensen

81 Renal Cell Carcinoma
Robert J. Motzer

82 Cancer of the Bladder and Urinary Tract
Noah M. Hahn

83 Benign and Malignant Diseases of the Prostate
Howard I. Scher, James A. Eastham

84 Testicular Cancer
David J. Vaughn

85 Gynecologic Malignancies
David Spriggs

86 Primary and Metastatic Tumors of the Nervous System
Lisa M. DeAngelis, Patrick Y. Wen

87 Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcomas and Bone Metastases
Shreyaskumar R. Patel

88 Carcinoma of Unknown Primary
Gauri R. Varadhachary, James L. Abbruzzese

89 Paraneoplastic Syndromes: Endocrinologic/Hematologic
J. Larry Jameson, Dan L. Longo

90 Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes and Autoimmune Encephalitis
Josep Dalmau, Myrna R. Rosenfeld

91 Late Consequences of Cancer and Its Treatment
Carl E. Freter, Dan L. Longo

Section 2: Hematopoietic Disorders

92 Hematopoietic Stem Cells
David T. Scadden, Dan L. Longo

93 Iron Deficiency and Other Hypoproliferative Anemias
John W. Adamson

94 Disorders of Hemoglobin
Edward J. Benz, Jr.

95 Megaloblastic Anemias
A. Victor Hoffbrand

96 Hemolytic Anemias
Lucio Luzzatto

97 Anemia Due to Acute Blood Loss
Dan L. Longo

98 Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Including Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplasia
Neal S. Young

99 Polycythemia Vera and Other Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Jerry L. Spivak

100 Acute Myeloid Leukemia
William Blum, Clara D. Bloomfield

101 Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Hagop Kantarjian, Jorge Cortes

102 Acute Lymphoid Leukemia
Dieter Hoelzer

103 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Jennifer A. Woyach, John C. Byrd

104 Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Caron A. Jacobson, Dan L. Longo

105 Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Caron A. Jacobson, Dan L. Longo

106 Less Common Hematologic Malignancies
Ayalew Tefferi, Dan L. Longo

107 Plasma Cell Disorders
Nikhil C. Munshi, Dan L. Longo, Kenneth C. Anderson

108 Amyloidosis
John L. Berk, Vaishali Sanchorawala

109 Transfusion Biology and Therapy
Jeffery S. Dzieczkowski, Pierre Tiberghien, Kenneth C. Anderson

110 Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Frederick R. Appelbaum

Section 3: Disorders of Hemostasis

111 Disorders of Platelets and Vessel Wall
Barbara A. Konkle

112 Coagulation Disorders
Valder R. Arruda, Katherine A. High

113 Arterial and Venous Thrombosis
Jane E. Freedman, Joseph Loscalzo

114 Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant, and Fibrinolytic Drugs
Jeffrey I. Weitz
Part 5: Infectious Diseases

Section 1: Basic Considerations in Infectious Diseases

115 Approach to the Patient with an Infectious Disease
Neeraj K. Surana, Dennis L. Kasper

116 Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis
Gerald B. Pier

117 Approach to the Acutely Ill Infected Febrile Patient
Tamar F. Barlam, Dennis L. Kasper

118 Immunization Principles and Vaccine Use
Nancy Messonnier, Anne Schuchat, Lisa A. Jackson

119 Health Recommendations for International Travel
Jay S. Keystone, Phyllis E. Kozarsky

120 Climate Change and Infectious Disease
Aaron S. Bernstein

Section 2: Clinical Syndromes: Community-Acquired Infections

121 Pneumonia
Lionel A. Mandell, Richard G. Wunderink

122 Lung Abscess
Rebecca M. Baron, Miriam Baron Barshak

123 Infective Endocarditis
Adolf W. Karchmer

124 Infections of the Skin, Muscles, and Soft Tissues
Dennis L. Stevens

125 Infectious Arthritis
Lawrence C. Madoff

126 Osteomyelitis
Werner Zimmerli

127 Intraabdominal Infections and Abscesses
Miriam Baron Barshak, Dennis L. Kasper

128 Acute Infectious Diarrheal Diseases and Bacterial Food Poisoning
Richelle C. Charles, Stephen B. Calderwood, Regina C. LaRocque

129 Clostridium difficile Infection, Including Pseudomembranous Colitis
Dale N. Gerding, Stuart Johnson

130 Urinary Tract Infections, Pyelonephritis, and Prostatitis
Kalpana Gupta, Barbara W. Trautner

131 Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Clinical Approach
Jeanne M. Marrazzo, King K. Holmes

132 Encephalitis
Karen L. Roos, Kenneth L. Tyler

133 Acute Meningitis
Karen L. Roos, Kenneth L. Tyler

134 Chronic and Recurrent Meningitis
Walter J. Koroshetz, Michael R. Wilson, Avindra Nath

135 Brain Abscess and Empyema
Karen L. Roos, Kenneth L. Tyler

136 Infectious Complications of Bites
Sandeep S. Jubbal, Florencia Pereyra, Lawrence C. Madoff

Section 3: Clinical Syndromes: Health Care-Associated Infections

137 Infections Acquired in Health Care Facilities
Robert A. Weinstein

138 Infections in Transplant Recipients
Robert W. Finberg, Joyce D. Fingeroth

Section 4: Therapy for Bacterial Diseases

139 Treatment and Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infections
David C. Hooper, Erica S. Shenoy, Christy A. Varughese

140 Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents
David C. Hooper

Section 5: Diseases Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria

141 Pneumococcal Infections
David Goldblatt, Katherine L. O'Brien

142 Staphylococcal Infections
Franklin D. Lowy

143 Streptococcal Infections
Michael R. Wessels

144 Enterococcal Infections
Cesar A. Arias, Barbara E. Murray

145 Diphtheria and Other Corynebacterial Infections
William R. Bishai, John R. Murphy

146 Listeria monocytogenes Infections
Elizabeth L. Hohmann, Daniel A. Portnoy

147 Tetanus
C. Louise Thwaites, Lam Minh Yen

148 Botulism
Agam K. Rao, Susan Maslanka

149 Gas Gangrene and Other Clostridial Infections
Amy E. Bryant, Dennis L. Stevens

Section 6: Diseases Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria

150 Meningococcal Infections
Andrew J. Pollard

151 Gonococcal Infections
Sanjay Ram, Peter A. Rice

152 Haemophilus and Moraxella Infections
Timothy F. Murphy

153 Infections Due to the HACEK Group and Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Bacteria
Tamar F. Barlam, Dennis L. Kasper

154 Legionella Infections
Victor L. Yu, M. Luisa Pedro-Botet, Yusen E. Lin

155 Pertussis and Other Bordetella Infections
Karina A. Top, Scott A. Halperin

156 Diseases Caused by Gram-Negative Enteric Bacilli
Thomas A. Russo, James R. Johnson

157 Acinetobacter Infections
Rossana Rosa, L. Silvia Munoz-Price

158 Helicobacter pylori Infections
John C. Atherton, Martin J. Blaser

159 Infections Due to Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas Species
Reuben Ramphal

160 Salmonellosis
David A. Pegues, Samuel I. Miller

161 Shigellosis
Philippe J. Sansonetti, Jean Bergounioux

162 Infections Due to Campylobacter and Related Organisms
Beth D. Kirkpatrick, Martin J. Blaser

163 Cholera and Other Vibrioses
Matthew K. Waldor, Edward T. Ryan

164 Brucellosis
Nicholas J. Beeching

165 Tularemia
Jeannine M. Petersen, Paul S. Mead

166 Plague and Other Yersinia Infections
Michael B. Prentice

167 Bartonella Infections, Including Cat-Scratch Disease
Michael Giladi, Moshe Ephros

168 Donovanosis
Nigel O'Farrell

Section 7: Miscellaneous Bacterial Infections

169 Nocardiosis
Gregory A. Filice

170 Actinomycosis
Thomas A. Russo

171 Whipple's Disease
Thomas A. Russo

172 Infections Due to Mixed Anaerobic Organisms
Neeraj K. Surana, Dennis L. Kasper

Section 8: Mycobacterial Diseases

173 Tuberculosis
Mario C. Raviglione

174 Leprosy
Robert H. Gelber

175 Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections
Steven M. Holland

176 Antimycobacterial Agents
Divya Reddy, Max R. O'Donnell

Section 9: Spirochetal Diseases

177 Syphilis
Sheila A. Lukehart

178 Endemic Treponematoses
Sheila A. Lukehart

179 Leptospirosis
Jiri F. P. Wagenaar, Marga G. A. Goris

180 Relapsing Fever
Alan G. Barbour

181 Lyme Borreliosis
Allen C. Steere

Section 10: Diseases Caused by Rickettsiae, Mycoplasmas, and Chlamydiae

182 Rickettsial Diseases
David H. Walker, J. Stephen Dumler, Lucas S. Blanton, Thomas J. Marrie

183 Infections Due to Mycoplasmas
R. Doug Hardy

184 Chlamydial Infections
Charlotte A. Gaydos, Thomas C. Quinn

Section 11: Viral Diseases: General Considerations

185 Medical Virology
Fred Wang, Elliott Kieff

186 Antiviral Chemotherapy, Excluding Antiretroviral Drugs
Lindsey R. Baden

Section 12: Infections Due to DNA Viruses

187 Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
Lawrence Corey

188 Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections
Richard J. Whitley

189 Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, Including Infectious Mononucleosis
Jeffrey I. Cohen

190 Cytomegalovirus and Human Herpesvirus Types 6, 7, and 8
Camille Nelson Kotton, Martin S. Hirsch

191 Molluscum Contagiosum, Monkeypox, and Other Poxvirus Infections
Fred Wang

192 Parvovirus Infections
Kevin E. Brown

193 Human Papillomavirus Infections
Darron R. Brown, Aaron Ermel

Section 13: Infections Due to DNA and RNA Respiratory Viruses

194 Common Viral Respiratory Infections
James E. Crowe, Jr.

195 Influenza
Peter F. Wright

Section 14: Infections Due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Other Human Retroviruses

196 The Human Retroviruses
Dan L. Longo, Anthony S. Fauci

197 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: AIDS and Related Disorders
Anthony S. Fauci, Gregory K. Folkers, H. Clifford Lane

Section 15: Infections Due to RNA Viruses

198 Viral Gastroenteritis
Umesh D. Parashar, Roger I. Glass

199 Enterovirus, Parechovirus, and Reovirus Infections
Jeffrey I. Cohen

200 Measles (Rubeola)
Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, William J. Moss

201 Rubella (German Measles)
Laura A. Zimmerman, Susan E. Reef

202 Mumps
Steven A. Rubin

203 Rabies and Other Rhabdovirus Infections
Alan C. Jackson

204 Arthropod-Borne and Rodent-Borne Virus Infections
Jens H. Kuhn, Remi N. Charrel

205 Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Infections
Jens H. Kuhn

Section 16: Fungal Infections

206 Diagnosis and Treatment of Fungal Infections
John E. Edwards, Jr.

207 Histoplasmosis
Chadi A. Hage, L. Joseph Wheat

208 Coccidioidomycosis
Neil M. Ampel

209 Blastomycosis
S. Travis King, Rathel L. Nolan, III

210 Cryptococcosis
Arturo Casadevall

211 Candidiasis
John E. Edwards, Jr.

212 Aspergillosis
David W. Denning

213 Mucormycosis
Brad Spellberg, Ashraf S. Ibrahim

214 Superficial Mycoses and Less Common Systemic Mycoses
Carol A. Kauffman

215 Pneumocystis Infections
Alison Morris, Henry Masur

Section 17: Protozoal and Helminthic Infections: General Considerations

216 Introduction to Parasitic Infections
Sharon L. Reed, Charles E. Davis

217 Agents Used to Treat Parasitic Infections
Thomas A. Moore

Section 18: Protozoal Infections

218 Amebiasis and Infection with Free-Living Amebae
Rosa M. Andrade, Sharon L. Reed

219 Malaria
Nicholas J. White, Elizabeth A. Ashley

220 Babesiosis
Edouard Vannier, Peter J. Krause

221 Leishmaniasis
Shyam Sundar

222 Chagas Disease and African Trypanosomiasis
Francois Chappuis, Yves Jackson

223 Toxoplasma Infections
Kami Kim

224 Protozoal Intestinal Infections and Trichomoniasis
Peter F. Weller

Section 19: Helminthic Infections

225 Introduction to Helminthic Infections
Peter F. Weller

226 Trichinellosis and Other Tissue Nematode Infections
Peter F. Weller

227 Intestinal Nematode Infections
Peter F. Weller, Thomas B. Nutman

228 Filarial and Related Infections
Thomas B. Nutman, Peter F. Weller

229 Schistosomiasis and Other Trematode Infections
Birgitte Jyding Vennervald

230 Cestode Infections
A. Clinton White, Jr., Peter F. Weller
Part 6: Disorders of the Cardiovascular System

Section 1: Introduction to Cardiovascular Disorders

231 Approach to the Patient with Possible Cardiovascular Disease
Joseph Loscalzo

232 Basic Biology of the Cardiovascular System
Joseph Loscalzo, Peter Libby, Calum A. MacRae

233 Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease
Thomas A. Gaziano, J. Michael Gaziano

Section 2: Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disorders

234 Physical Examination of the Cardiovascular System
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

235 Electrocardiography
Ary L. Goldberger

236 Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging: Echocardiography, Nuclear Cardiology, and Magnetic Resonance/Computed Tomography Imaging
Marcelo F. Di Carli, Raymond Y. Kwong, Scott D. Solomon

237 Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Angiography
Jane A. Leopold, David P. Faxon

Section 3: Disorders of Rhythm

238 Principles of Electrophysiology
David D. Spragg, Gordon F. Tomaselli

239 The Bradyarrhythmias: Disorders of the Sinoatrial Node
David D. Spragg, Gordon F. Tomaselli

240 The Bradyarrhythmias: Disorders of the Atrioventricular Node
David D. Spragg, Gordon F. Tomaselli

241 Approach to Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias
Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

242 Physiologic and Non-physiologic Sinus Tachycardia
Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

243 Focal Atrial Tachycardia
Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

244 Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardias
Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

245 Common Atrial Flutter, Macroreentrant and Multifocal Atrial Tachycardias
Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

246 Atrial Fibrillation
Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

247 Approach to Ventricular Arrhythmias
Roy M. John, William G. Stevenson

248 Premature Ventricular Beats, Non-sustained Ventricular Tachycardia, and Idioventricular Rhythm
Roy M. John, William G. Stevenson

249 Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia
William G. Stevenson, Roy M. John

250 Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation
William G. Stevenson, Roy M. John

251 Electrical Storm and Incessant VT
William G. Stevenson, Roy M. John

Section 4: Disorders of the Heart

252 Heart Failure: Pathophysiology and Diagnosis
Douglas L. Mann, Murali Chakinala

253 Heart Failure: Management
Mandeep R. Mehra

254 Cardiomyopathy and Myocarditis
Neal K. Lakdawala, Lynne Warner Stevenson, Joseph Loscalzo

255 Cardiac Transplantation and Prolonged Assisted Circulation
Mandeep R. Mehra

256 Aortic Valve "Disease
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

257 Aortic Regurgitation
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

258 Mitral Stenosis
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

259 Mitral Regurgitation
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

260 Mitral Valve Prolapse
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

261 Tricuspid Valve Disease
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

262 Pulmonic Valve Disease
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

263 Multiple and Mixed Valvular Heart Disease
Patrick T. O'Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

264 Congenital Heart Disease in the Adult
Anne Marie Valente, Michael J. Landzberg

265 Pericardial Disease
Eugene Braunwald

266 Atrial Myxoma and Other Cardiac Tumors
Eric H. Awtry

Section 5: Coronary and Peripheral Vascular Disease

267 Ischemic Heart Disease
Elliott Antman, Joseph Loscalzo

268 Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina)
Robert P. Giugliano, Christopher P. Cannon, Eugene Braunwald

269 ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Elliott M. Antman, Joseph Loscalzo

270 Percutaneous Coronary Interventions and Other Interventional Procedures
David P. Faxon, Deepak L. Bhatt

271 Hypertensive Vascular Disease
Theodore A. Kotchen

272 Renovascular Disease
Stephen C. Textor

273 Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism
Samuel Z. Goldhaber

274 Diseases of the Aorta
Mark A. Creager, Joseph Loscalzo

275 Arterial Diseases of the Extremities
Mark A. Creager, Joseph Loscalzo

276 Chronic Venous Disease and Lymphedema
Mark A. Creager, Joseph Loscalzo

277 Pulmonary Hypertension
Aaron B. Waxman, Joseph Loscalzo
Part 7: Disorders of the Respiratory System

Section 1: Diagnosis of Respiratory Disorders

278 Approach to the Patient with Disease of the Respiratory System
Patricia A. Kritek, Bruce D. Levy

279 Disturbances of Respiratory Function
Edward T. Naureckas, Julian Solway

280 Diagnostic Procedures in Respiratory Disease
Anne L. Fuhlbrigge, Augustine M.K. Choi

Section 2: Diseases of the Respiratory System

281 Asthma
Peter J. Barnes

282 Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia
Praveen Akuthota, Michael E. Wechsler

283 Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease
John R. Balmes

284 Bronchiectasis
Rebecca M. Baron, Miriam Baron Barshak

285 Cystic Fibrosis
Eric J. Sorscher

286 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Edwin K. Silverman, James D. Crapo, Barry Make

287 Interstitial Lung Disease
Gary M. Hunninghake, Ivan O. Rosas

288 Disorders of the Pleura
Richard W. Light

289 Disorders of the Mediastinum
Richard W. Light

290 Disorders of Ventilation
John F. McConville, Julian Solway, Babak Mokhlesi

291 Sleep Apnea
Andrew Wellman, Susan Redline

292 Lung Transplantation
Elbert P. Trulock, III
Part 8: Critical Care Medicine

Section 1: Respiratory Critical Care

293 Approach to the Patient with Critical Illness
John P. Kress, Jesse B. Hall

294 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Rebecca M. Baron, Bruce D. Levy

295 Mechanical Ventilatory Support
Bartolome R. Celli

Section 2: Shock and Cardiac Arrest

296 Approach to the Patient with Shock
Anthony F. Massaro

297 Sepsis and Septic Shock
Christopher W. Seymour, Derek C. Angus

298 Cardiogenic Shock and Pulmonary Edema
David H. Ingbar, Holger Thiele

299 Cardiovascular Collapse, Cardiac Arrest, and Sudden Cardiac Death
Christine M. Albert, William G. Stevenson

Section 3: Neurologic Critical Care

300 Coma
S. Andrew Josephson, Allan H. Ropper, Stephen L. Hauser

301 Severe Acute Encephalopathies and Critical Care Weakness
J. Claude Hemphill, III, Wade S. Smith, S. Andrew Josephson, Daryl R. Gress

302 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
J. Claude Hemphill, III, Wade S. Smith, Daryl R. Gress
Part 9: Disorders of the Kidney and Urinary Tract

303 Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Kidney
Alfred L. George, Jr., Eric G. Neilson

304 Acute Kidney Injury
Sushrut S. Waikar, Joseph V. Bonventre

305 Chronic Kidney Disease
Joanne M. Bargman, Karl L. Skorecki

306 Dialysis in the Treatment of Renal Failure
Kathleen D. Liu, Glenn M. Chertow

307 Transplantation in the Treatment of Renal Failure
Jamil Azzi, Edgar L. Milford, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Anil Chandraker

308 Glomerular Diseases
Julia B. Lewis, Eric G. Neilson

309 Polycystic Kidney Disease and Other Inherited Disorders of Tubule Growth and Development
Jing Zhou, Martin R. Pollak

310 Tubulointerstitial Diseases of the Kidney
Laurence H. Beck, Jr., David J. Salant

311 Vascular Injury to the Kidney
Ronald S. Go, Nelson Leung

312 Nephrolithiasis
Gary C. Curhan

313 Urinary Tract Obstruction
Julian L. Seifter
Part 10: Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System

Section 1: Disorders of the Alimentary Tract

314 Approach to the Patient with Gastrointestinal Disease
William L. Hasler, Chung Owyang

315 Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Louis Michel Wong Kee Song, Mark Topazian

316 Diseases of the Esophagus
Peter J. Kahrilas, Ikuo Hirano

317 Peptic Ulcer Disease and Related Disorders
John Del Valle

318 Disorders of Absorption
Henry J. Binder

319 Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Sonia Friedman, Richard S. Blumberg

320 Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Chung Owyang

321 Diverticular Disease and Common Anorectal Disorders
Rizwan Ahmed, Susan L. Gearhart

322 Mesenteric Vascular Insufficiency
Satinderjit Locham, Mahmoud Malas

323 Acute Intestinal Obstruction
Danny O. Jacobs

324 Acute Appendicitis and Peritonitis
Danny O. Jacobs

Section 2: Nutrition

325 Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Assessment
Johanna Dwyer

326 Vitamin and Trace Mineral Deficiency and Excess
Paolo M. Suter, Robert M. Russell

327 Malnutrition and Nutritional Assessment
Gordon L. Jensen

328 Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition
L. John Hoffer, Bruce R. Bistrian, David F. Driscoll

Section 3: Liver and Biliary Tract Disease

329 Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease
Marc G. Ghany, Jay H. Hoofnagle

330 Evaluation of Liver Function
Daniel S. Pratt

331 The Hyperbilirubinemias
Allan W. Wolkoff

332 Acute Viral Hepatitis
Jules L. Dienstag

333 Toxic and Drug-Induced Hepatitis
William M. Lee, Jules L. Dienstag

334 Chronic Hepatitis
Jules L. Dienstag

335 Alcoholic Liver Disease
Mark E. Mailliard, Michael F. Sorrell

336 Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis
Manal F. Abdelmalek, Anna Mae Diehl

337 Cirrhosis and Its Complications
Bruce R. Bacon

338 Liver Transplantation
Raymond T. Chung, Jules L. Dienstag

339 Diseases of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts
Norton J. Greenberger, Gustav Paumgartner

Section 4: Disorders of the Pancreas

340 Approach to the Patient with Pancreatic Disease
Darwin L. Conwell, Norton J. Greenberger, Peter A. Banks

341 Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis
Darwin L. Conwell, Peter A. Banks, Norton J. Greenberger
Part 11: Immune-Mediated, Inflammatory, and Rheumatologic Disorders

Section 1: The Immune System in Health and Disease

342 Introduction to the Immune System
Barton F. Haynes, Kelly A. Soderberg, Anthony S. Fauci

343 The Major Histocompatibility Complex
Gerald T. Nepom

344 Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases
Alain Fischer

Section 2: Disorders of Immune-Mediated Injury

345 Urticaria, Angioedema, and Allergic Rhinitis
Katherine N. Cahill, Joshua A. Boyce

346 Anaphylaxis
David Hong, Joshua A. Boyce

347 Mastocytosis
Cem Akin, Joshua A. Boyce

348 Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases
Betty Diamond, Peter E. Lipsky

349 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Bevra Hannahs Hahn

350 Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos

351 Rheumatoid Arthritis
Ankoor Shah, E. William St. Clair

352 Acute Rheumatic Fever
Jonathan R. Carapetis

353 Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma) and Related Disorders
John Varga

354 Sjogren's Syndrome
Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos

355 The Spondyloarthritides
Joel D. Taurog

356 The Vasculitis Syndromes
Carol A. Langford, Anthony S. Fauci

357 Behcet's Syndrome
Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos

358 Inflammatory Myopathies
Steven A. Greenberg, Anthony A. Amato

359 Relapsing Polychondritis
Carol A. Langford

360 Sarcoidosis
Robert P. Baughman, Elyse E. Lower

361 IgG4-Related Disease
John H. Stone

362 Familial Mediterranean Fever and Other Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases
Daniel L. Kastner

Section 3: Disorders of the Joints and Adjacent Tissues

363 Approach to Articular and Musculoskeletal Disorders
John J. Cush

364 Osteoarthritis
David T. Felson, Tuhina Neogi

365 Gout and Other Crystal-Associated Arthropathies
H. Ralph Schumacher, Lan X. Chen

366 Fibromyalgia
Leslie J. Crofford

367 Arthritis Associated with Systemic Disease, and Other Arthritides
Carol A. Langford, Brian F. Mandell

368 Periarticular Disorders of the Extremities
Carol A. Langford
Part 12: Endocrinology and Metabolism

Section 1: Endocrinology

369 Approach to the Patient with Endocrine Disorders
J. Larry Jameson

370 Mechanisms of Hormone Action
J. Larry Jameson

371 Physiology of Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Shlomo Melmed, J. Larry Jameson

372 Hypopituitarism
Shlomo Melmed, J. Larry Jameson

373 Pituitary Tumor Syndromes
Shlomo Melmed, J. Larry Jameson

374 Disorders of the Neurohypophysis
Gary L. Robertson

375 Thyroid Gland Physiology and Testing
J. Larry Jameson, Susan J. Mandel, Anthony P. Weetman

376 Hypothyroidism
J. Larry Jameson, Susan J. Mandel, Anthony P. Weetman

377 Hyperthyroidism
J. Larry Jameson, Susan J. Mandel, Anthony P. Weetman

378 Thyroid Nodular Disease and Thyroid Cancer
J. Larry Jameson, Susan J. Mandel, Anthony P. Weetman

379 Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
Wiebke Arlt

380 Pheochromocytoma
Hartmut P. H. Neumann

381 Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
R. V. Thakker

382 Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes
Peter A. Gottlieb, Aaron W. Michels

Section 2: Sex- and Gender-Based Medicine

383 Disorders of Sex Development
John C. Achermann, J. Larry Jameson

384 Disorders of the Testes and Male Reproductive System
Shalender Bhasin, J. Larry Jameson

385 Disorders of the Female Reproductive System
Janet E. Hall

386 Menstrual Disorders and Pelvic Pain
Janet E. Hall

387 Hirsutism
David A. Ehrmann

388 Menopause and Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy
JoAnn E. Manson, Shari S. Bassuk

389 Infertility and Contraception
Janet E. Hall

390 Sexual Dysfunction
Kevin T. McVary

391 Women's Health
Andrea Dunaif

392 Men's Health
Shalender Bhasin, Shehzad Basaria

393 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Health
Baligh R. Yehia, Harvey J. Makadon

Section 3: Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Syndrome

394 Pathobiology of Obesity
Jeffrey S. Flier, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier

395 Evaluation and Management of Obesity
Robert F. Kushner

396 Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis, Classification, and Pathophysiology
Alvin C. Powers, Kevin D. Niswender, Carmella Evans-Molina

397 Diabetes Mellitus: Management and Therapies
Alvin C. Powers, Kevin D. Niswender, Michael R. Rickels

398 Diabetes Mellitus: Complications
Alvin C. Powers, John M. Stafford, Michael R. Rickels

399 Hypoglycemia
Philip E. Cryer, Stephen N. Davis

400 Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism
Daniel J. Rader, Sekar Kathiresan

401 The Metabolic Syndrome
Robert H. Eckel

Section 4: Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

402 Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Health and Disease
F. Richard Bringhurst, Marie B. Demay, Henry M. Kronenberg

403 Disorders of the Parathyroid Gland and Calcium Homeostasis
John T. Potts, Jr., Harald Juppner

404 Osteoporosis
Robert Lindsay, Felicia Cosman

405 Paget's Disease and Other Dysplasias of Bone
Murray J. Favus, Tamara J. Vokes

Section 5: Disorders of Intermediary Metabolism

406 Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue
Darwin J. Prockop, John F. Bateman

407 Hemochromatosis
Lawrie W. Powell

408 Wilson's Disease
George J. Brewer

409 The Porphyrias
Robert J. Desnick, Manisha Balwani

410 Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism
John N. Mecchella, Christopher M. Burns

411 Lysosomal Storage Diseases
Robert J. Hopkin, Gregory A. Grabowski

412 Glycogen Storage Diseases and Other Inherited Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism
Priya S. Kishnani, Yuan-Tsong Chen

413 Inherited Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism in Adults
Nicola Longo

414 Inherited Defects of Membrane Transport
Nicola Longo
Part 13: Neurologic Disorders

Section 1: Diagnosis of Neurologic Disorders

415 Approach to the Patient with Neurologic Disease
Daniel H. Lowenstein, Joseph B. Martin, Stephen L. Hauser

416 Neuroimaging in Neurologic Disorders
William P. Dillon

417 Pathobiology of Neurologic Diseases
Stephen L. Hauser, Arnold R. Kriegstein, Stanley B. Prusiner

Section 2: Diseases of the Central Nervous System

418 Seizures and Epilepsy
Daniel H. Lowenstein

419 Cerebrovascular Diseases
Wade S. Smith, S. Claiborne Johnston, J. Claude Hemphill, III

420 Ischemic Stroke
Wade S. Smith, S. Claiborne Johnston, J. Claude Hemphill, III

421 Intracranial Hemorrhage
Wade S. Smith, J. Claude Hemphill, III, S. Claiborne Johnston

422 Migraine and Other Primary Headache Disorders
Peter J. Goadsby

423 Alzheimer's Disease
William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller

424 Frontotemporal Dementia
William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller

425 Vascular Dementia
Joel H. Kramer, William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller

426 Dementia with Lewy Bodies
William W. Seeley, Caroline M. Tanner, Bruce L. Miller

427 Parkinson's Disease
C. Warren Olanow, Christine Klein, Anthony H. V. Schapira

428 Tremor, Chorea, and Other Movement Disorders
C. Warren Olanow, Christine Klein, Jose A. Obeso

429 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases
Robert H. Brown, Jr.

430 Prion Diseases
Stanley B. Prusiner, Bruce L. Miller

431 Ataxic Disorders
Roger N. Rosenberg

432 Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System
Christopher H. Gibbons, John W. Engstrom

433 Trigeminal Neuralgia, Bell's Palsy, and Other Cranial Nerve Disorders
M. Flint Beal, Stephen L. Hauser

434 Diseases of the Spinal Cord
Stephen L. Hauser

435 Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries
Geoffrey T. Manley, Stephen L. Hauser, Michael McCrea

436 Multiple Sclerosis
Bruce A. C. Cree, Stephen L. Hauser

437 Neuromyelitis Optica
Bruce A. C. Cree, Stephen L. Hauser

Section 3: Nerve and Muscle Disorders

438 Peripheral Neuropathy
Anthony A. Amato, Richard J. Barohn

439 Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Other Immune-Mediated Neuropathies
Stephen L. Hauser, Anthony A. Amato

440 Myasthenia Gravis and Other Diseases of the Neuromuscular Junction
Anthony A. Amato

441 Muscular Dystrophies and Other Muscle Diseases
Anthony A. Amato, Robert H. Brown, Jr.

Section 4: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

442 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Gijs Bleijenberg, Jos W. M. van der Meer

Section 5: Psychiatric and Addiction Disorders

443 Biology of Psychiatric Disorders
Robert O. Messing, Eric J. Nestler, Matthew W. State

444 Psychiatric Disorders
Victor I. Reus

445 Alcohol and Alcohol Use Disorders
Marc A. Schuckit

446 Opioid-Related Disorders
Thomas R. Kosten, Colin N. Haile

447 Cocaine and Other Commonly Used Drugs
Karran A. Phillips, Antonello Bonci

448 Nicotine Addiction
David M. Burns
Part 14: Poisoning, Drug Overdose, and Envenomation

449 Heavy Metal Poisoning
Howard Hu

450 Poisoning and Drug Overdose
Mark B. Mycyk

451 Disorders Caused by Venomous Snakebites and Marine Animal Exposures
Charles Lei, Kirsten B. Hornbeak, Paul S. Auerbach, Robert L. Norris

452 Ectoparasite Infestations and Arthropod Injuries
Richard J. Pollack, Scott A. Norton
Part 15: Disorders Associated with Environmental Exposures

453 Altitude Illness
Buddha Basnyat, Geoffrey Tabin

454 Hypothermia and Peripheral Cold Injuries
Daniel F. Danzl

455 Heat-Related Illnesses
Daniel F. Danzl
Part 16: Genes, the Environment, and Disease

456 Principles of Human Genetics
J. Larry Jameson, Peter Kopp

457 The Practice of Genetics in Clinical Medicine
Susan M. Domchek, J. Larry Jameson, Susan Miesfeldt

458 Gene and Cell Based Therapy in Clinical Medicine
Katherine A. High, Malcolm K. Brenner

459 The Human Microbiome
Neeraj K. Surana, Dennis L. Kasper
Part 17: Global Medicine

460 Global Issues in Medicine
Joseph J. Rhatigan, Paul Farmer

461 Worldwide Changes in Patterns of Infectious Disease
George W. Rutherford, Jaime Sepulveda

462 Primary Care and Global Health
Tim Evans, Kumanan Rasanathan
Part 18: Aging

463 The Biology of Aging
Rafael de Cabo, David G. Le Couteur

464 Clinical Problems Associated with the Aging Process
Joseph G. Ouslander, Bernardo Reyes
Part 19: Consultative Medicine

465 Approach to Medical Consultation
Jack Ende, Jeffrey Berns

466 Medical Disorders During Pregnancy
Robert L. Barbieri, John T. Repke

467 Medical Evaluation of the Surgical Patient
Prashant Vaishnava, Kim A. Eagle
Part 20: Frontiers


468 Behavioral Economics and Health
Kevin G. Volpp, George Loewenstein, David A. Asch

469 Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Health Approaches
Josephine P. Briggs

470 Telomere Disease
Rodrigo T. Calado, Neal S. Young

471 The Role of Epigenetics in Disease and Treatment
Brian C. Capell, Shelley L. Berger

472 Mitochondrial DNA and Heritable Traits and Diseases
Karl L. Skorecki, Bruce H. Cohen

473 Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine
John A. Kessler

474 Microbial Genomics and Infectious Disease
Roby P. Bhattacharyya, Yonatan H. Grad, Deborah T. Hung

475 The Role of Circadian Biology in Health and Disease
Jonathan Cedernaes, Kathryn Moynihan Ramsey, Joseph Bass

476 Network Medicine: Systems Biology in Health and Disease
Joseph Loscalzo

477 Emerging Neurotherapeutic Technologies
Jyoti Mishra, Karunesh Ganguly

Online Chapters

The following chapters are available online. They can be viewed at www.accessmedicine.com.

Part 21: Video Collection
V1 Video Library of Gait Disorders
Gail Kang, Nicholas B. Galifianakis, Michael D. Geschwind

V2 Primary Progressive Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders
Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Jennifer Ogar, Joel Kramer, Bruce L. Miller, Gil Rabinovici, Maria Carmela Tartaglia

V3 Video Library of Neuro-Ophthalmology
Jonathan C. Horton

V4 Examination of the Comatose Patient
S. Andrew Josephson

V5 Video Atlas of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Lesions
Louis Michel Wong Kee Song, Mark Topazian

V6 The Neurologic Screening Exam
Daniel H. Lowenstein

V7 Video Atlas of the Detailed Neurologic Examination
Martin A. Samuels

Part 22: Supplementary Topics
S1 Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances and Acid-Base Disturbances: Case Examples
David B. Mount, Thomas D. DuBose, Jr.

S2 Microbial Bioterrorism
H. Clifford Lane, Anthony S. Fauci

S3 Chemical Terrorism
Jonathan Newmark, James A. Romano, Jr.

S4 Radiation Terrorism
Christine E. Hill-Kayser, Eli Glatstein, Zelig A. Tochner

S5 Infections in War Veterans
Andrew W. Artenstein

S6 Health Care for Military Veterans
Stephen C. Hunt, Charles W. Hoge

S7 Primary Immunodeficiencies Associated with (or Secondary to) Other Diseases
Alain Fischer

S8 Cardiac Trauma
Eric H. Awtry

S9 Technique of Lumbar Puncture
Elizabeth Robbins, Stephen L. Hauser

S10 Classification of the Spinocerebellar Ataxias
Roger N. Rosenberg

S11 Hyperbaric and Diving Medicine
Michael H. Bennett, Simon J. Mitchell

S12 The Clinical Laboratory in Modern Health Care
Anthony A. Killeen

S13 Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
Alexander J. McAdam, Andrew B. Onderdonk

S14 Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections
Sharon L. Reed, Charles E. Davis

Part 23: Atlases
A1 Atlas of Rashes Associated with Fever
Kenneth M. Kaye, Elaine T. Kaye

A2 Atlas of Oral Manifestations of Disease
Samuel C. Durso, Janet A. Yellowitz

A3 Atlas of Urinary Sediments and Renal Biopsies
Agnes B. Fogo, Eric G. Neilson

A4 Atlas of Skin Manifestations of Internal Disease
Thomas J. Lawley, Benjamin K. Stoff, Calvin O. McCall

A5 Atlas of Hematology
Dan L. Longo

A6 Atlas of Blood Smears of Malaria and Babesiosis
Nicholas J. White, Joel G. Breman

A7 Atlas of Electrocardiography
Ary L. Goldberger

A8 Atlas of Noninvasive Imaging
Marcelo F. Di Carli, Raymond Y. Kwong, Scott D. Solomon

A9 Atlas of Cardiac Arrhythmias
Ary L. Goldberger

A10 Atlas of Atherosclerosis
Peter Libby

A11 Atlas of Percutaneous Revascularization
Jane A. Leopold, Deepak L. Bhatt, David P. Faxon

A12 Atlas of Chest Imaging
Patricia A. Kritek, John J. Reilly, Jr.

A13 Atlas of Liver Biopsies
Jules L. Dienstag, Atul K. Bhan

A14 Atlas of the Vasculitic Syndromes
Carol A. Langford, Anthony S. Fauci

A15 Atlas of Clinical Manifestations of Metabolic Diseases
J. Larry Jameson

A16 Atlas of Neuroimaging
Andre D. Furtado, Luciano Villarinho, William P. Dillon

Index I-1